Ngakau Mahaki is the recognition that everyone has mana and whakapapa, i.e. a relational history which is unique, lends identity and is worthy of respect. As such, Ngakau Mahake promotes respect and destigmatization.

Manaaki is the pursuit of increasing the mana of others through interaction. According to the Maori dictionary, it is to support, take care of, give hospitality to, protect and to look out for your fellow man.

Although these concepts are viewed as separate competencies in the Takarangi framework, they seem to naturally fuse together when viewed from a European perspective.

Ngakau Mahaki is a predisposition to respect cultural and individual variance and difference. It acknowledges that each of us arrive in the present through a unique and valid genetic and cultural ancestry.

Manaaki is more active in its pursuit to increase self-esteem and a sense of personal value in others, through our relationships with them.

The two competencies may well be viewed as essential to healthy relationships generally, and to the therapeutic relationship in particular. They are perhaps best embodied in Carl Rogers' Client Centered therapeutic approach which requires the relational presence of (a) unconditional positive regard, (b) empathic understanding and (c) congruence, or genuineness.

Ngakau Mahaki and Manaaki